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S Specifically, the summary report points out that as of 2012, there were 1.9 million Asian American-owned businesses. These Asian American-owned businesses also generated 9.4 billion in revenue (up 148% from 2002), employed more than 3.6 million people, and supported payrolls totaling 0.5 billion.

They also describe how, very similar to the geography of the Asian American population in general, almost 60% of these businesses were located in just four states (California, New York, Texas, and Hawai'i) and that more than one-third are located in just four metropolitan areas (Los Angeles/Orange County, New York, Honolulu, and San Francisco).

In other words, even among those who are self-employed, there are different types of occupations.

The type that many people normally associate with Asian small businesses are the types that are traditionally found within ethnic enclaves -- relatively low-skill service industries such as restaurants, retail, groceries, beauty services, etc.

As White small business owners sell their businesses in inner cities (i.e., Jews and Italians in New York in the 1980s), Asian immigrants take over in these areas. These businesses tend to offer easy entry but also involve high risks of losses or failures (i.e, garment, groceries and restaurants, personal services, and retail sales).

In my own research on this topic, I have found that, in the same way that analyzing self-employment using the all-encompassing category of "Asian American" distorts specific differences between Asian ethnic groups, analyzing self-employment as a single type of employment can also be misleading.

As it turns out, of all the major racial/ethnic groups, Asian Americans are the most likely to own their own small businesses (along with some European immigrants). When we count family members or relatives who work for Korean store owners, the rate of being directly involved in a family small business in one form or another is probably even higher than that.

The following table, based on data from the 2000 Census 5% Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS), lists the rates of being self-employed for all persons 25 years of age or older in the seven major Asian ethnic groups. However, Koreans do not have the highest self-employment rates among the U. In fact, research shows that in the last couple of decades, women, immigrants, and people of color have entered self-employment in increasingly larger numbers.

In fact, my preliminary research suggests that while self-employment among Asian American ethnic groups is slowly declining in general, self-employment in these professional industries is slowly on the rise.The article on Asian American enclaves describes how Asian communities have proliferated since the arrival of new immigrants to the U. The growth of these ethnic economies is directly and intrinsically tied to the growth of Asian small businesses.Walk around any Chinatown, Little Tokyo, Koreatown, or Little Saigon and you'll see hundreds of small shops and businesses, selling everything from traditional foods, ethnic music, travel, haircuts and manicures, flowers, and liquor. Among foreign-raised Asians, Koreans have the highest self-employment rate at almost 28%.As the results show, foreign-raised Asians (those who immigrated to the U. at age 13 or older) are much more likely to be self-employed than U. The question then becomes, why are so many Asian immigrants opening up their own business?In my academic research on self-employment and entrepreneurship among Asian Americans, I have organized the different explanations of Asian immigrant self-employment into four main categories.Regarding specific ethnicities, Chinese small business owners made up 28% of all Asian-owned small business owners in 2012, followed by Asian Indians at 20%, Vietnamese at 16%, and Koreans at 12%.The 2012 Census data also shows that Asian-owned businesses had average revenues of about 4,717, which is less than the 0,600 national average for all business (excluding publicly held corporations).At the same time, Asian Indian-owned businesses had the highest average revenue among all Asians at 1,740 with Vietnamese American-owned businesses at the bottom with average revenues of 1,463.In terms of sector, the numbers suggest that Asian-owned businesses are generally concentrated in "repair, maintenance, personal, and laundry services," "professional, scientific, and technical services," and retail sectors.Finally, they tend to have "Americanized" attitudes and norms of behavior that makes it easier for them to relate to their Asian and non-Asian customers and community.Finally, there is the theory of Structural Opportunities, which has three separate sub-theories or "models." The first is the model.

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