Furniture built in the Midwest and the South is different from New England made pieces.The problem with using style to establish the construction date of country and primitive furniture is that regional styles remained unchanged for most of the 19th century.Country furniture does have its styles based predominately on religion and region.The catholic French and the Irish built cupboards with bold moldings, cut out feet, raised panels and they painted their cupboards in bright colors.The pit saw leaves marks on wood that look like this ///////////.
Since it is impossible for any item to be older than the technology that made it possible, a chronological system of the advancement of cabinetmaking technology can be used to establish construction dates to within a few years.
Machine plane marks are of some use in dating cupboards made as early as 1860, but machine plane marks usually suggest a construction date of 1880 or later.
The introduction of the modern looking butt hinge used to hold doors on cupboards dates to 1820. By 1840, cast iron hinges became thinner as manufacturers tried to squeeze more hinges out of each pound of iron.
The rough sawed lumber used in furniture construction was smoothed with either a hand held plane, or a planing machine.
The hand held plane was used in this country from the beginning until after 1900.