The Dutch occupied parts of the island from the early 17th century and were able to keep out the Spanish, but the former were themselves removed in 1662 by mainland Chinese forces.
Chinese warlords and pirates were to make Taiwan their base for a number of decades until the Qing dynasty was to annex it in 1683 and it became part of Fujian province.
The status of Taiwan was to become uncertain after events in 1945.
While the Republic of China forces in Taihoku (today’s Taipei) accepted the surrender of Japanese troops in Taiwan, the province was put under the administrative control of the Republic of China in 1945 by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, no treaty made specific references to Taiwanese sovereignty.
During this period, native Taiwanese and Aborigines started to be more vocal in their demands, including calls to formally secede from the rest of China.
The ancestors of today’s aboriginal groups are thought to have arrived 4,000-8,000 years ago.
At the same time, the government of the People’s Republic of China established in 1949 claimed it to be the legal representative of all of China, including Taiwan, and that the Republic of China’s government in Taipei was an illegitimate separatist group.
It is thought that some 1.3 million Mainland Chinese followed the Kuomintang’s movement into Taiwan from 1949, quickly coming to dominate many if not most aspects of the island’s economy and politics.
The Republic of China (Taiwan) is located north of the Philippines and south of China, off the eastern coast of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and consists of the main island of Taiwan and smaller islands in the Taiwan Strait or off the southeast coast of the PRC.
Taiwan itself is generally mountainous, with plains in the west end of the island, and tropical and sub-tropical vegetation.