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How is relative dating used to evaluate geologic time

If that condition is likely to have persisted for the history of the ocean, there is strong reason to doubt that the sea is billions of years old.Thus, we will examine input and output rates carefully. We define the system in question as being the seawater in the ocean basins, not including water trapped in sea-floor sediments.Furthermore, two dozen measurements of axial springs may not be representative of the global Waves of the sea, especially breaking waves along the shore, produce air bubbles in the water.

The fine dust is largely silicate minerals, a major part of which dissolve in the sea.He obtained Geologists have suspected for more than 100 years that water seeps through the continents and issues forth on the floor of the ocean.This was not proven until recently when drilling of sediments of the continental shelves revealed fresh water moving seaward through the sedimentary layers.According to Garrels and Mackenzie [14], The direct attack of ocean waves along the coast erodes considerable amounts of sand, silt and clay.Most of the finest particles produced are silicates which have not been rinsed by the fresh water of rivers and remain very reactive with the ocean.The dissolved solids of ground waters can be measured in parts per thousand (ppt) and vary significantly from as fresh as rain water (0.0001 ppt) to extremely saline brine (over ppt) that seeps from the platform onto the floors of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico [18].According to Paull and Neumann [18], major brine seepage causes significant solution of limestone and is believed to be a major cause of the steep slopes at the margins of the platform.This indicates seawater alters sea-floor basalt by a complex series of metamorphic reactions.According to Seyfried [20], metasomatism dissolves Two classes of sea-floor hydrothermal vents are recognized by Wolery and Sleep [21]: axial and off-axial hydrothermal vents.According to Garrels and Mackenzie [14], Dissolved in the steam that continental volcanoes deliver to the earth's surface are small quantities of Na .Meybeck [17] calculated the mass delivered from airborne volcanic aerosols to the ocean.


  1. IUGG2011,28 June - 7 July 2011, Melbourne, Australia International Unionof Geodesy and Geophysics General Assembly

  2. Petrogenesis of High-K Arc Magmas Evidence from Egmont Volcano negligible relative tothe sample sizes used. general way to evaluate the various

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