Some major industrial sectors took part in the birth of the game industry, from amusement and consumer electronics industries to toy and television manufacturers.
The Japanese video game industry was not supported by the military-academic complex, or even initiated by start-ups, but rather developed from the outset by entertainment corporations and import/export businesses that were already well established in the consumptive post-war Japan.
The economic development of Japan after the war, which has led to the arrival and the success of the Japanese video game industry, is large and complex.
However, we can highlight some foundational events, as some key industries were developed that have had, at one time or another, significant influences on the arrival and the development of the video game industry, such as the successful household electrical appliances industry (Yoshimi, 1999) and the computer industry (Nakayama & Yoshioka, 2006).
The Japanese video game industry is one of those industries in Japan that was imported from the United States during the twentieth century, but that was able to somehow “improve” the model.
The formation of the Japanese video game industry is strongly tied to the specific socioeconomic situation of Japan after World War II.
Despite alliances, collaborations and interdependencies that were played globally, many crucial events that were set on Japanese territory must be taken into consideration.
Their products circulate across transcultural and global flows, and video games’ contents are now better understood as complex flux as opposed to national or even cultural manifestations (Consalvo, 2006). Like Aoyama and Izushi already attested, the evolution of the Japanese video game market is linked to a specific economic and cultural context: We argue that the cross-sectoral transfer of skills occurs differently depending on national contexts, such as the social legitimacy and strength of preexisting industries, the socioeconomic status of entrepreneurs or pioneer firms in an emerging industry, and the sociocultural cohesiveness between the preexisting and emerging industries. Each country draws on a different set of creative resources, which results in a unique trajectory. In the context of this article, I will briefly focus on the implementation of three sectors in the Japanese video game industry: the arcade, the home console and the personal computer, which have, each in their own way, deeply affected the evolution of video games, not only in Japan, but also in international markets. After an historical overview of each of these sectors, the author concludes with some key consequences of the contribution of the Japanese video game industry on the industry as a whole. Keywords: Japan, history, industry, arcade, home console, PC, Geemu A common discourse about Japanese video games and the contribution of Japan to the video game industry as a whole is to tie them to the development of a global and hybrid industry. This aforementioned discourse nevertheless underlies an assumption firmly rooted in video game studies and historical accounts of video games: it is as if the only manifestation of the Japanese video game industry had been made on a global level, while the specific development of the industry on the Japanese territory had never existed. Unfortunately, these assumptions tend to neglect the complex geopolitical and socioeconomic negotiations taking place on Japanese territory -- before, during, and even after the creation of a global media complex -- forming tangible distinctions between the Japanese and the North American (or European) market as each tries to divert and capture these flows. His publications consist of articles and chapters in anthologies such as The Routledge Companion to Video Game Studies (Routledge, forthcoming), Encyclopedia of Video Games: The Culture, Technology, and Art of Gaming (ABC-Clio, 2012), Horror Video Games: Essays on the Fusion of Fear and Play (Mc Farland, 2009), The Video Game Theory Reader 2 (Routledge, 2009), and The Video Game Explosion: A History From PONG to Play Station and Beyond (Greenwood Press, 2008). The paper offers a short history of the origins and the establishment of the Japanese video game industry (from 1973 to 1983). Similar to the work of Marc Steinberg on the anime’s media mix (Steinberg, 2012), we must examine the economic and material conditions of the video game industry in Japanese territory to better understand the evolution of video games globally, locally and everything in between. In this sense, the emergence of the video game industry in Japan is a “development that is informed by a unique set of historical and material circumstances” (Steinberg, 2012, p.