Invasive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infection (MSSA) caused more infections and more deaths in hospitalized infants than invasive methicillin-resistant S.
Staphylococcus aureus (also known as golden staph) is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Each year, around 500,000 patients in hospitals of the United States contract a staphylococcal infection, chiefly by S. Greek σταφυλόκοκκος, "grape-cluster berry", Latin aureus, "golden") is a facultative anaerobic, gram-positive coccal (round) bacterium also known as "golden staph" and "oro staphira". Natural genetic transformation is a reproductive process involving DNA transfer from one bacterium to another through the intervening medium, and the integration of the donor sequence into the recipient genome by homologous recombination. aureus was found to be capable of natural genetic transformation, but only at low frequency under the experimental conditions employed. aureus, along with similar species that can colonize and act symbiotically but can cause disease if they begin to take over the tissues they have colonized or invade other tissues, have been called "pathobionts".
particularly when skin or mucosal barriers have been breached. aureus infections can spread through contact with pus from an infected wound, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person, and contact with objects used by an infected person such as towels, sheets, clothing, or athletic equipment. This can manifest in various ways, including small benign boils, folliculitis, impetigo, cellulitis, and more severe, invasive soft-tissue infections. aureus is extremely prevalent in persons with atopic dermatitis.
The bacterium most commonly colonizes the nostrils, although it can be found in other body sites.
Most research has focused on people who are newly colonized by the bacteria and has found that they are at substantial risk of subsequent infections.
MRSA is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that can cause a variety of serious infections.
This manifests in one of three forms: osteomyelitis, septic arthritis and infection from a replacement joint surgery. aureus is often found in biofilms formed on medical devices implanted in the body or on human tissue. Hyaluronidase (also known as spreading factor) breaks down hyaluronic acid and helps in spreading it. aureus also produces deoxyribonuclease, which breaks down the DNA, lipase to digest lipids, staphylokinase to dissolve fibrin and aid in spread, and beta-lactamase for drug resistance.
It is commonly found with another pathogen, Candida albicans, forming multispecies biofilms. Antigens known as superantigens can induce toxic shock syndrome (TSS).
Joint replacements put a person at particular risk of septic arthritis, staphylococcal endocarditis (infection of the heart valves), and pneumonia. It is mostly found in fertile, active places, including the armpits, hair, and scalp.
Diabetics, injection drug users, and individuals with heart conditions, should take extra precautions to avoid coming into contact with staphylococcus aureus, as they are at the highest risk. Large pimples that appear in those areas may exacerbate the infection if lacerated.