For Shi’as, in addition to the aforementioned, the rulings of the twelve Imams are considered a primary source.
Other sources may exist for different Muslim sects.
In addition to these primary sources, Muslims have also traditionally relied on the following: scholarly consensus, that is, the agreement of knowledgeable scholars upon a particular issue; and analogical reasoning, which means applying principles or laws derived from the Qur’an and Sunnah to similar situations not explicitly addressed by them.
The lived experience of Islam, which naturally varies widely not only in different cultures but also with different individuals, also impacts and determines a Muslim’s understanding and practice of Islam.
Today “Arabian” is used as an adjective to describe a non-human noun (e.g., Arabian coffee); it should not be used to refer to people.
This points to the fact that Islam, like all religions, does not live or speak apart from the people who practice it.
There is therefore no monolithic Islam, since, like any other religion, Islam exists only as it is understood and practiced by its adherents.
The Arabic word “Islam” is based on the root “slm,” which means peace or surrender to God.
Combining both translations results in the combined meaning “the state of peace through following God’s guidance.” Islamic is an adjective that modifies a non-human noun, as for example, “Islamic art,” “Islamic architecture,” “Islamic beliefs,” etc. A follower of Islam is called a Muslim, or “one who is in a state of peace by following God’s guidance.” While the term Arab has been used in the past to refer to members of a Semitic ethnic group from the Arabian Peninsula, today the word “Arab” refers to people from Arabic-speaking countries, most of which are in the Middle East and North Africa.