At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, and the Khazars took over much of the land.
In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of what is now Ukraine.
Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, executive and judicial branches. Taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians "by ethnicity", followed by a sizeable minority of Russians (17.3 percent) as well as Georgians, Romanians/Moldovans, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians and Hungarians.
Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic.
On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future.The dominant religions in the country are Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek Catholicism, which have strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature and music.It is a member of the United Nations since its founding, the Council of Europe, OSCE, GUAM, and one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world.The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC.The third period of independence began in 1991, when Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War.Ukraine has maintained its independence as a sovereign state ever since.bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014 making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world.The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD.In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria.