From the 14th century to the 18th century the city's prominent position in North West England meant that it was commonly also known as Westchester.
This name was used by Celia Fiennes when she visited the city in 1698.
the Romano-British civilian settlement continued (probably with some Roman veterans staying behind with their wives and children) and its occupants probably continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea.
After the Roman troops withdrew, the Romano-British established a number of petty kingdoms. Deverdoeu was a Welsh name for Chester as late as the 12th century (cf Dyfrdwy, Welsh for the river Dee).
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Chester was one of the last cities in England to fall to the Normans.
William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border.
In 973, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, two years after his coronation at Bath, King Edgar of England came to Chester where he held his court in a palace in a place now known as Edgar's Field near the old Dee bridge in Handbridge.
The Industrial Revolution brought railways, canals, and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall and the Grosvenor Museum are examples of Victorian architecture from this period.
The Roman Legio II Adiutrix during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian founded Chester in AD 79, as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix.
Another, attested in the 9th century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius, is .
(The town's importance is noted by its taking the simpler form in each case, while Isca Augusta in Monmouthshire, another important legionary base, was known first as Caerleon on the Usk, and now as Caerleon).