Known as Der Wandervogel ("wandering bird"), the hippie movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing amateur music and singing, creative dress, and communal outings involving hiking and camping.
Inspired by the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Goethe, Hermann Hesse, and Eduard Baltzer, Wandervogel attracted thousands of young Germans who rejected the rapid trend toward urbanization and yearned for the pagan, back-to-nature spiritual life of their ancestors.
The Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation.
Hippies created their own communities, listened to psychedelic music, embraced the sexual revolution, and many used drugs such as marijuana, LSD, peyote and psilocybin mushrooms to explore altered states of consciousness.
The first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe.
John Williams’ Stoner is the story of a failure which has found posthumous success 48 years after first publication and 19 years after its author’s death, and - most remarkable of all - without the boost of any Nobel Prize or film adaptation.A July 1968 Time magazine study on hippie philosophy credited the foundation of the hippie movement with historical precedent as far back as the Sadhu of India, the spiritual seekers who had renounced the world by taking "Sannyas".Even the counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics were also early forms of hippie culture.The religious and cultural diversity the hippies espoused has gained widespread acceptance, and Eastern philosophy and spiritual concepts have reached a larger audience.In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square.In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior.In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," seemingly in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now!The word hippie was also used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two popular songs in 1963: South Street by The Orlons, In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphia's South Street.Hippie fashion and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, television, film, literature, and the arts.Since the 1960s, mainstream society has assimilated many aspects of hippie culture.